The Impact of Exchange Rate on Tomato Trade : Evidence from Malaysia
Economists recognise that exchange rate has a significant impact on trade. In this study, we employed the Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) bounds testing procedure to analyse the impact of exchange rate on export and import of tomato’s for Malaysia. The period of study covers 1997-2007 using quarterly data. Real Effective Exchange Rate (REER) was used rather than conventional exchange rate since this study covers the trade between Malaysia and the rest of the world. Our results indicate that both the export and import of tomatoes exhibit significant long-run relationships with REER. Causal effects in both cases are bidirectional. However, while the sign is economically correct for the relationship between REER and export, the same cannot be said for the relationship between import and REER. Baharom Abdul Hamid, Emmy Farha Alias, Illisriyani Ismail & Alias Radam
(2012). Published in Asian Social Science, 8(6):20-25. Corresponding author: Baharom.AbdulHamid@taylors.edu.my
Technical Efficiency of Manufactured Rubber Products in Malaysia : Stochastic Frontier Analysis
This paper investigates the technical efficiencies of rubber product manufacturing industry in Malaysia.We employed Stochastic Frontier Analysis (SFA). Secondary data from 313 firms that manufacture rubber product was obtained from the Annual Survey Of Manufacturing Industries 2004 by Department of Statistics Malaysia. Variables that are included in this are such as capital (RM), labor, and energy. Results clearly show that the mean technical efficiency of manufactured rubber product industry in Malaysia is 0.70328 or 70.33 percent. Majority of the firms are also fairly efficient in the use of available resources. Some technical assistance such as training programs for the proprietors of the firms and financial support such as subsidies could be offered to boost their production level as rubber is indeed an important component of the manufacturing industry in Malaysia. Baharom Abdul Hamid,
Alias Radam & Noor Maliza Ahali (2012). Elixir Online Journal, 42: 6466-6471. Corresponding author: Baharom.AbdulHamid@taylors.edu.my
Generation Y’s Perception Towards Law and Ethics
Generation Y (here in after referred to as Gen Y), born between the years 1993 to 2001 is vastly different from previous generations, especially Baby Boomers. According to Eric Chester, a Gen Y observer and expert, Gen Y is also referred to as “Generation Why” because the generation wants to know the “why” before they will do the “what”. They cut their teeth on computer keyboards, and to them, computer technology and the Internet are as natural as breathing (Coates, 2007). This generation has greater exposure to digital technology and promises to change not only the way families interact and communicate, but also how young people relate to school and learning. However, Dr. Randal Hansen, a published author and educator, declares that this generation also known as ‘Echo Boomers’ and ‘The Millennials’ have been called arrogant, self-centered, and possessing a short attention span. There is a general presumption that this “young generation” do not bind themselves much to the established principles of general conduct or even the law in existence even though it is evident that law and ethics serve to channel one’s behavior. Hence, the purpose of this study is to examine Gen Y’s perception towards law and ethics based on gender, race and religion.
Ambikai S.Thurasingam & Premagowrie Sivanandan
(2012). Journal of Advanced Social Research, 2: 52-66. Corresponding author: Ambikai.SThuraisingam@taylors.edu.my
Path Analysis of Atmospherics and Convenience on Flow: The Mediation Effects of Brand Affect and Brand Trust
Although there has been extensive research on retail environments and the effects of atmospherics on consumer behaviour, research of this nature in developing countries such as Malaysia is still scant in spite of the proliferation of shopping malls. In this study, the role of atmospherics and locational convenience was examined. The mediating effects of brand trust and brand affect were also tested on the relationship between the dependent variables: atmospherics and locational convenience on flow and the dependent variable using structural equations analysis. Data for the present study were collected from shoppers exiting shopping malls in Kuala Lumpur/Petaling Jaya. A total of 698 responses from 11 malls were analysed. Results show an absence of the direct effect of atmospherics and locational convenience on flow, contrary to findings of past research which show a direct effect on approach/avoidance behaviour. The present study supports findings of more recent studies that suggest the presence of intervening variables, i.e. the hypothesised mediating role of brand trust and brand affect on the relationship between atmospherics and flow, and between locational convenience and flow. Findings suggest that the pleasant environment and locational convenience together evoked brand affect and brand trust, which in turn affects flow. Gender effect on the hypothesised relationships was tested. Results show that male and female shoppers tended to respond differently to the exogenous variables of atmospherics and locational convenience. Limitations and directions for future research are suggested. Khong Kok Wei, Ong Fon Sim,
Tengku M. Faziharudean & Dai Xin. (2012). The International Review of Retail, Distribution and Consumer Research, 22(3): 277-291. Corresponding author: KokWei.Khong@taylors.edu.my
Leadership Styles and Organizational Citizenship Behaviour: The Mediating Effect of Subordinates’ Competence and Downward Influence Tactics
The objective of this study is to test a theory-based model predicting the relationships between leadership styles, subordinates’ competence, downward influence tactics and outcome of organizational citizenship behavior in Malaysian-based organizations. Data was collected from 347 respondents that represent major industries like services, manufacturing, mining and construction companies. Path analysis technique was used to test the model developed. The results show that the transformational leadership style has significant positive relationship with subordinates’ organizational citizenship behavior, whereas the transactional leader style is negatively related to organizational citizenship behavior. This result illustrates the direct effects of leadership styles on the subordinates’ outcome. In addition, inspirational appeals and consultation tactics, as downward influence tactics, were found to mediate the relationship between transformational leadership and organizational citizenship behavior. Likewise, subordinates’ competence mediates the relationship between transformational leadership and consultation tactics. These results only partially support the efficacy of the influence theory, and therefore lend support to contingency theories of leadership. Implications for research and direction for future research are also discussed. Lee Kim Lian
& Low Guan Tui (2012). Journal Of Applied Business and Economics, 13(2). Corresponding author: KimLian.Lee@taylors.edu.my
Defense Spending – Economic Growth Nexus in Selected OIC Countries: A Long-Run Causality Analysis
This paper examines the causality between defense spending and economic growth for selected 20 Organization of Islamic Countries (OIC). In this paper we test for causality employing the Error-Correction Model (ECM) framework using annual data for the period 1960 to 2005. Defense spending is measured using the logarithm of the ratio of defense spending to gross domestic product (milex); while economic growth is proxy by the logarithm of real GDP per capita (rgdpc). Causation (as well as cointegration) is inferred from milex to rgdpc, in a single-equation ARDL-ECM framework when the ECM term is significant in an equation with rgdpc as dependent variable. On the other hand, Granger causality is said to run from rgdpc to milex, in a single-equation ARDL-ECM framework when the ECM term is significant in an equation with milex as dependent variable. However, before testing for cointegration or causality, the order of integration of both time-series was tested using the standard ADF unit root test. Our long-run causality results are mixed. We found one-way Granger causality running from economic growth to defense spending for Burkina Faso, Indonesia, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Togo and Turkey. On the other hand, one-way Granger causal effect running from defense spending to economic growth are found for Iran, Mauritania, and Nigeria. However, for the rest of the OIC countries, our results suggest that there are no relationship between defense spending and economic growth.
Baharom Abdul Hamid,
M.T. Hirnissa & Muzafar Shah Habibullah. (2012). International Journal of Business, Economics and Accounting, 1(1): 22-26 (In Press). Corresponding author: Baharom.AbdulHamid@taylors.edu.my
Regional Spillovers and Economic Growth : Do Neighbouring Countries Matter for Sabah and Sarawak Economic Development?
The objective of the present paper is to address the question whether the economic development of the neighboring country, state or provinces have impacted the states of Sabah and Sarawak or vice versa. Using annual data for the period 1968 to 2003, our results indicate that the growth of the state of Sarawak is affected by the growth of Brunei Darussalam, Sabah, West Kalimantan and East Kalimantan. On the other hand, the economy of Sabah is affected by the economies of Brunei, Sarawak and East Kalimantan. Baharom Abdul Hamid,
Muzafar Shah Habibullah, A.M. Dayang Affizah & Puah Ching Hong (2012). International Journal of Business, Economics and Accounting, 1(1): 13-16. Corresponding author: Baharom.AbdulHamid@taylors.edu.my
Inter-relationship between Poverty, Trade and Crime: A Cross-Sectional Study for Least Developed Countries
Poverty had always been the scourge of mankind who always seek to achieve a higher standard of living. In the least developing countries (LDCs), the need to overcome poverty, among others is indeed crucial to achieve an ‘elevation’ in socioeconomic development. The purpose of this study is to determine the linkages between poverty, trade and crime. A cross-sectional data of 22 least developed countries is employed to investigate the relationship by utilizing the macroeconomic variables of the nations’ income levels (GDP per capita) and international trade (percentage of merchandise trade to the GDP), poverty headcount rates (earners of USD1.25 per day and USD 2 per day and below respectively) and crime (total crime numbers). As it is a cross-sectional analysis, we use White Standard Error to cater for heteroscedasticity. The results are consistent with theory that there is a significant inverse relationship between income level and poverty. International trade also shares the similar inverse relationship with the poverty. The role of crime is insignificant. The empirical results provide some useful evidence to the policymakers with regards to the different roles played by the income, international trade and crime in alleviating poverty. Wilson Ow Chee Seong & Baharom Abdul Hamid
(2012). Academicia, 2(9): 73-79. Corresponding author: firstname.lastname@example.org
Clarifying the Relationship between Materialism and Well-being: Testing for Reciprocal and Third-variable Effects
Although consumer researchers have investigated the relationship between materialism and well-being (life satisfaction and self-esteem) for decades, their findings have been neither consistent about the nature of this relationship nor conclusive as to the direction of causality. The present study attempts to examine the reciprocal relationships of these variables using a large-scale survey in Malaysia. The emerged relationships between materialism and the two measures of well-being are subjected to a rigorous test for assessing the direction of causality. The results show that materialism has no significant impact on well-being, and the same two measures of well-being (life satisfaction and self-esteem) have no effect on materialism. However, the study finds stress to moderate the causal effect of well-being on materialism. High levels of well-being appear to promote materialistic values only among those Malaysians who report low levels of chronic stress. Implications and directions for future research are suggested for marketing practitioners and consumer researchers. Ong Fon Sim,
Sarinya Laisawat, Jaratchwahn Jantarat & George P. Moschis (2012). Journal of Global Scholars of Marketing Science: Bridging Asia and the World, 22(1): 45-69. Corresponding author: FonSim.Ong@taylors.edu.my
Effects of life status changes on changes in consumer preferences
This article examines the effect of life status changes on consumer preferences. It seeks explanations for continuities and changes in consumer preferences and examines the role of cultural and subcultural influences. Data used in the present study come from a large scale survey that used face-to-face interviews with a total of 645 respondents from three different ethnic backgrounds in Peninsular Malaysia. The findings show some consistencies with those of past research. They also suggest subcultural differences in consumer responses due to life-changing events. The study suggests the value of adopting the life course paradigm as a blueprint for further research across countries. Ong Fon Sim
& George P. Moschis (2012). Journal of Global Scholar of Marketing Science, 22(3): 195-217. Corresponding author: FonSim.Ong@taylors.edu.my
Exploring Factors Influencing First Year Underachievers’ Academic Performance at a School of Business
This study sought to examine the factors that contributed to the first year underachievers’ performance at a private university through a qualitative approach. Data were obtained and analyzed from two focus groups interviews. Students were selected based on their second attempt on the business subjects. The findings indicated that insufficient of sleep, inability to adjust to the new environment and social life, inappropriate time management, teaching strategies and approaches, self-discipline and self-effort were the most common factors contributed to the underperformance of these first year undergraduate students. Educators may not be awarded that the first year university environment could pose challenges to many students who leave their families and friends for the very first time. Early intervention might be needed to rectify this problem. Finding of the study also helps students to realize the dynamic challenges of new environment and educators are urged to develop strategies to improve first year students’ academic performance. Ernest Lim Kok Seng & Robin Cheng
(2012). Review of Higher Education and Self-Learning (RHESL), 5(15): E-Print. Corresponding author: email@example.com
Patterns of Exchange Rates and Current Accounts: The East Asian Waltz
One common feature of the Global Financial Crisis of 2008 and the Asian Financial Crisis of 1997/98 is that any shock to the financial system or market system can cause the system or market to flip from one state to another state (called ‘thresholds’, breakpoints’, ‘tipping points’). How the change in the overall state of a system is derived depends on the feedback mechanism within it, and how the complex system dictates how the network is organized. The ‘Asian miracle’ fueled by the East Asia regionalism is a market system that has given new life to its neighbouring economies - Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Japan, Korea, China, Hong Kong. In the process these countries have also become more networked and interconnected. However, regionalism has also created market risks and imbalances through network effect. This study attempts to capture the network behavior of these nine Asian foreign exchange markets and its impacts on the current accounts. The findings strongly show that for the last decades or two, these Asian exchange rates fluctuations and its inter-linkages have moved in a wave and path-dependent pattern, as they have already engaged in a grand Waltz, as currency and capital flows move back and forth through feedbacks. Cho Cho Wai,
Andrew Sheng & Kwek Kian Teng (2012). Singapore Economic Review, 57(2): 55-88. Corresponding author: firstname.lastname@example.org
Finance and Other Services Sectors in Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah and Sarawak: Testing for Stochastic Convergence
In the last four decades, the financial services sector has becoming more important for the Malaysian economy. Despite gaining importance for enhancing economic growth, the contribution of the finance sector to the total services real Gross Domestic Product (GDP) has been ranked second in Peninsular Malaysia, third in Sabah and fourth in Sarawak. The purpose of the present paper is to determine whether the contribution of the financial services sector in the three regions in Malaysia, namely Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah and Sarawak show any distinct pattern. In the jargon of economic development literature, we seek to determine whether there is ‘convergence’ or similarity in the patterns of the performance of the financial services sector among the three regions. Generally, our results suggest divergence of the finance sector and other sub-sectors of the services among the three regions. Baharom Abdul Hamid,
Muzafar Shah Habibullah & M.T. Hirnissa, (2012). Aceh International Journal of Social Sciences, 1(2): 39-47. Corresponding author: email@example.com
Foreign Exchange Rate Exposure of an Emerging Market: The Case of Indonesia
The paper examines the exchange rate exposure of the Indonesian national market, the Indonesia Stock Exchange, for the 1988-2009 period using an EGARCH (1,1) model. The evidence indicates negative exposure of the Indonesian market to variations in the rupiah-dollar exchange rate. Moreover, applying a rolling regression technique, the exposure is found to be more negative in recent years. Thus, the rupiah-dollar depreciation tends to have an adverse impact on the Indonesian market. These results seem to be robust across specifications of the mean equation. Finally, our exploratory exercises indicate the potential importance of current account and financial variables particularly current account balance, financial account balance, financial development and financial openness in explaining changing exchange rate exposure. However, their relations with the exposure seem intriguing and may be more complex than we thought. Baharom Abdul Hamid
& Mansor H. Ibrahim (2012). Taylor’s Business Review, 1(1): 45-64. Corresponding author: Baharom.AbdulHamid@taylors.edu.my
Academic Quality Characteristics and Satisfaction: An Empirical Survey among the Students of Two Malaysian Private Universities
In response to the markets needs and demands, the private higher education in Malaysia has undergone extensive changes in the recent years to the extent that it has been regarded as supplementing and complementing the public higher education system. In view of that, higher education in Malaysia has become a business and burgeoning market for earning revenues. As such, quality has always been a concern to be addressed in higher education reforms in Malaysia and in most countries. The main objectives of this study were to investigate the students’ level of satisfaction in academic quality in their current university and the academic quality characteristics which were important to them. Two Malaysian private universities were selected for this study and participants were 768 undergraduate students from the bachelor and pre-tertiary levels from a wide range of disciplines. Student satisfaction in the quality of higher education in four specific areas namely academic programme, lecturers, academic services and facilities are presented and the academic quality characteristics in each of these areas which were perceived as important to the students are also revealed. Tang Siew Fun
(2012). Academic Research International, 2(1): 213-228. Corresponding author: SiewFun.Tang@taylors.edu.my
Customer Relationship Management: Is it Still Relevant to Commercial Banks in Taiwan?
Nowadays, customers are regarded as a commodity. Customer Relationship Management (CRM) in a bank entails important phases such as integrating the communication tools to meet the needs of customers, treating each customer as individuals, and making the customer relationship an imposing and perpetual experience. The aim of this research is to determine the effectiveness of CRM implementation on customer satisfaction and perceived business performance. Literature suggests that successful CRM efforts involve proper deployment of the three phases in CRM implementation, i.e. acquisition, enhancement and recovery phases. Furthermore, there is a strong causal relationship between CRM implementation and customer satisfaction as well as perceived business performance. A survey was carried out using a survey instrument on commercial banks in Taiwan. Findings revealed that CRM implementation is positively associated with customer satisfaction and perceived business performance as suggested by the literature. Contact rate and recovery management were found to be associated with customer retention while acquisition management, regular contact and evaluation of customers lead to improved loyalty and employee sentiments. In a managerial point of view, this study provides an outline of the impact of CRM efforts on the dimensions of customer satisfaction and perceived business performance. Khong Kok Wei & Yao Hui I
(2012). International Journal of Business and Management, 7 (1): 151-160. Corresponding author: KokWei.Kwong@taylors.edu.my
The Effect of Stress Factors on the Reading Habits among Gen-Y: A Generalised Linear Model
The complexity in teaching the generation Y students is a challenge faced by academics in many higher education institutions. This includes the evolution from conventional reading to reading using the ever expanding web-based resources. This quantitative study was undertaken to examine the relationship between stress factors and reading habits among Gen Y students. The purpose of this study is to identify the type of stress which affects Gen Y students, the effect of these stress factors on the Gen Y reading habits and the moderating effect of gender on the relationship between stress factors and reading habits. The data was collected from 206 business students in a private higher education institution using a structured questionnaire after a prior pilot test of 76 samples. The data was analysed using reliability, factor analysis and multivariate general linear model. The use of factor analysis identified four constructs for readership and two constructs for stress factors. An association between stress factors and reading habits was established. It was discovered that stress affected the knowledge and the exam purpose readers. Further investigation showed that gender moderates the effect of stress on the Gen Y reading habits. These findings will be of value to educators as they seek a better understanding of the needs and priorities of the millennial students. It is hoped that these findings will enable educators to establish a good understanding of the Gen Y students and their distinct needs so as to promote the use of more innovative teaching methodologies to further encourage a healthier learning environment. Shalini Nagaratnam, Harpaljit Kaur & Ratneswary Raniah
(2012). Interscience Management Review (IMR), 2(2): 1-5. Corresponding author: Shalini.Nagaratnam@taylors.edu.my
Examining the Relationship between Visual Merchandising and Apparel Impulse Buying among Young Malaysian Consumers
Stiff competition in the retail sector has resulted in retailers implementing various forms of competitive strategies to outdo each other. Impulse buying is one dimension that has not been thoroughly researched in Malaysia as a means of increasing a firm’s competitive edge. This paper intends to fill this gap by investigating the relationship between visual merchandising and apparel impulse buying behaviour among young Malaysian consumers. Two forms of visual merchandising investigated in the paper were window display and promotional signage. The results indicate that both forms of visual merchandising are significantly related to impulse buying. The study provides insights to retailers on the role of visual merchandising in influencing consumers’ impulse purchase specifically related to young consumers. Jeannot Abdul Karim,
Sofiah Abdul Rahman & Mukesh Kumar (2012). Taylor’s Business Review, 2(2): 101-113. Corresponding author : Jeannot.AbdulKarim@taylors.edu.my
Green Marketing: Exploring Consumer Buying Behavior Towards Green Products in Malaysia
Everyone seems concerned about the green environment, but is this concern reflected in Malaysian consumers’ buying behaviour towards green products? This study explores the relationships between ecological knowledge, values, attitudes, behaviour and consumers’ purchase intention. Data were collected at points where customers exited shopping malls in the Klang Valley. A total of 250 responses were received and data from 196 were found usable. The results indicate that ecological knowledge, values and behaviour are significantly related to consumer purchase decisions on green products. The findings further our understanding of why consumers are more vigilant when making decisions to buy green products. This could be due to their ecologically conscious behaviour and the need to adapt healthier lifestyles. This study suggests that firms could design their marketing strategies to focus on environment friendly products with affordable prices to increase consumer willingness to purchase green products in Malaysia. The paper concludes by highlighting the implications of the study for future research and practice. Lee Kim Lian
& See Siew Ling (2012). Taylor’s Business Review, 2(2): 115-131. Corresponding author : Kimlian.firstname.lastname@example.org
Beeronomics: A Time Series Analysis of Consumer Behaviour in the Beer Market in Malaysia
This study uses time-series analysis to investigate the long-run relationships and short-run dynamic interactions between beer consumption and the independent variables of income level (Gross Domestic Product per capita), wealth (proxied by money supply, M2) and total exports in Malaysia over the period 1961 to 2009. The study applies the multivariate cointegration methodology to establish the possible causal relations between these variables. The cointegration test and the vector error correction model demonstrate the evidence of a positive long-run relationship between beer consumption and the income level while wealth and exports have a negative impact on beer consumption in Malaysia. The long-term elasticity coefficients of the independent variables on beer consumption display relationships that are theoretically grounded. Further innovative analysis using variance decompositions lends evidence of the dominant influence of income level and exports in forecasting variance in the consumption of beer in Malaysia. The study concludes with an examination of policy implications of these findings. R. Ratneswary V. Rasiah, A.H. Baharom, Wilson Ow Chee Seong
& Muzafar Shah Habibullah (2012). Taylor’s Business Review, 2(2): 133-148. Corresponding author: email@example.com
Determinants of the Relationship between Firm Leverage and Cash Flow: Evidence from Malaysian Companies
A firm’s investment activities are believed to be affected by its leverage and cash flow relationship. Previous empirical literature has so far identified a positive leverage-cash flow relationship under the signalling theory and a negative leverage-cash flow relationship under the pecking order theory. This paper seeks to examine the determinants of firm leverage-cash flow relationship among companies in Malaysia. Theories have been reviewed to identify influential factors and further tested on 100 FBMKLCI multi-sector companies in the Malaysian bourse. Firms’ cash flow, liquidity, profitability, tangibility and growth represent the independent variables in the research model. Our study demonstrates that there is no significant relationship between leverage and cash flow. This might be due to different financing styles in developing countries, the effect of ease in accessing external funds with low cost, or firms’ financial flexibility to issue new debts rather than being dependent on internal funds. While firms’ tangibility and dividend payout does not affect firms’ leverage level, firms’ investment suggests a significant positive relationship with leverage only within the small firm size group. Firms’ profitability, liquidity and growth are also key predictors for leverage. Our results further support the pecking order theory, where negative liquidity-leverage relationship suggests firms with high liquid assets prefer to use internally generated funds to finance their investment activities. Marina Mustapha & Ng Huey Chyi
(2012). Taylor’s Business Review, 2(1): 1-15. Corresponding author: Marina.Mustapha@taylors.edu.my
Financial Integration and International Capital Mobility: Evidence from ASEAN
This study was conducted to explore the linkages between savings and investment and to further test whether there is any evidence of relationship between financial integration and international capital mobility. The empirical model to test the capital mobility hypothesis applied here employs the panel data approach to the basic regression model used by Feldstein & Horioka (1980). The study covers ASEAN5 and ASEAN+3 (with China, Korea and Japan included). The findings of this study corroborate with other studies that savings and investment are cointegrated and this can be interpreted as a manifestation of the inter-temporal budget constraint rather than evidence of low capital mobility. The long-run equilibrium between savings and investment is in line with the inter-temporal budget constraints of an open economy as current account deficits cannot be sustained indefinitely. The relatively high degree of capital mobility when China, Korea and Japan are included in the ASEAN5 sample suggests that there is great potential for integration in the financial markets in these eight economies in the future. Baharom Abdul Hamid
, Muzafar Shah Habibullah & Sarinder Kumari (2012). Taylor’s Business Review, 2(1): 17-31. Corresponding author : Baharom.AbdulHamid@taylors.edu.my
Measuring Service Quality in Luxury Hotels In Malaysia
Success in the hotel business depends on understanding the key factors in determining customer satisfaction. Nowadays, Malaysian hotels continue to compete intensely for a larger market share. Therefore, satisfying the guests during their first visit and prolonging their stay would develop customer loyalty and thereby build the desire to revisit Malaysia. There are a few studies which have investigated guests’ perceived service quality in Malaysia. Even fewer studies have empirically measured the dimensions of service quality in luxury hotels to provide a service quality index. Therefore, this study aims to fulfil this gap by applying the SERVQUAL model by Parasuraman, Zeithaml & Berry (1988). In order to fulfil the objectives of this study, a questionnaire was utilised to gather data from systematic sampling of 260 luxury hotel guests in the Klang Valley. The data collected were subject to multiple regression analysis. The research found that three dimensions of service quality have a positive impact on the hotel customers’ perceptions ie Tangibility, Reliability and Emphathy. Subsequently service quality was measured and an index for service quality was derived. Vahideh Abaeian & Khong Kok Wei
(2012). Taylor’s Business Review, 2(1): 47-59. Corresponding author: firstname.lastname@example.org
Adoption of Islamic Banking Products and Services among Non-Muslim Consumers in Malaysia
Past research on Islamic banking tends to focus on customer satisfaction, service quality, and banking selection criteria. Little is known about the behaviour that could influence consumers into using Islamic banking products and services, especially non-Muslims. The aim of this paper is to examine the behaviour of non-Muslims in Malaysia towards the intention to use Islamic banking products and services by applying the theory of planned behaviour (TPB). A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to customers of retail banks in the capital city of Malaysia. Since this study focuses on non-Muslims, purposive sampling was used. A sample of 350 was obtained. Results show that attitude, subjective norm as well as perceived behavioural control have a positive effect on behavioural intention to adopt Islamic banking products and services. Liew Cheng Siang
& Leong Kah Weng (2012). Taylor’s Business Review, 2(1): 73-83. Corresponding author: ChengSiang.Liew@taylors.edu.my
Students’ Performance in a Business Programme in Local Private Higher Learning Institutions
The quality of graduates in the country is important as they will either continue their studies or join the workforce. Many studies have been done mainly in the West on the factors affecting business students’ academic performance. This research was undertaken to determine factors affecting the academic performance of diploma students in a business programme, in one of the local private institutions in Malaysia. In this study, tests were carried out to determine whether the same factors found in the earlier studies were equally important in affecting the performance of diploma business students in this local private institution. It is important to identify factors that affect students’ performance so as to enhance our understanding of the different levels of students’ performance and take measures towards increasing student retention rates; such an understanding will also enable academics to take the necessary remedial actions to assist students complete their business studies successfully. English and Mathematics knowledge gained from their earlier education (school certificate level) have been identified as factors that play an important role in the performance of these business diploma students. Gender, academic background and previous academic achievements which were identified as relevant factors in previous studies were found to be irrelevant to these students’ academic performance. This difference may be due to differences in culture and teaching mode between the Western and Asian environments. Yap Yoke Har & Ng Huey Chyi
(2012). Journal of Interdisciplinary Research in Education (JIRE), 2(1): 65-77. Corresponding author: YokeHar.Yap@taylors.edu.my
The Dynamics of Thailand's Real Exchange Rate
This study examines the fundamental determinants of the real exchange rate in Thailand during the period of 1976-2006, using the Bounds testing approach suggested by Pesaran et al. (2001). Three main fundamentals are used to identify the RER, namely, the productivity differentials (proxied by GDP per capita), the net foreign assets position (proxied by the current account balance, CAB), and the real interest rate differential (RIR). The empirical results demonstrate stable long run relationship between the real exchange rate (RER) and GDP per capita (GDPPC), real interest rate (RIR) and current account balance (CAB). Baharom Abdul Hamid,
Muzafar Shah Habibullah, M. Azali, M., Chow Li Shien (2011). Interdisciplinary Journal of Contemporary Research in Business, 2(11): 23-31. Corresponding author : Baharom.AbdulHamid@taylors.edu.my
The Role of Gold in Financial Investment: A Malaysian Perspective
The paper assesses whether gold investment provides diversification, hedge, or safe haven benefit for the case of Malaysia using daily data from August 2001 to March 2010. The results indicate that at best gold serves as a diversification asset for Malaysian investors. In the analysis, we also find changing investment role of gold in recent years marked by global financial market uncertainties. The hedge and safe haven properties of gold investment documented in the initial sub-sample have been degraded to only diversification property. Moreover, the extreme market conditions tend to weaken the role of gold as a diversification asset in financial portfolio formation.
Mansor,H.I., Baharom, A.H
(2011). Journal of Economic Computation and Economic Cybernetics Studies and Research, 45(4): 227-238. Corresponding author : Baharom.AbdulHamid@taylors.edu.my
Consumer tribes: Membership consumption and building loyalty
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to extend the emergent consumer tribe literature to facilitate a more complete understanding of the antecedents and roles implicit within consumer tribal membership. Principally a conceptual paper, this study focuses upon how a more complete understanding of consumer roles can be leveraged to create sustainable loyalty. Design/methodology/approach – This study comprised an examination of the tribe's social behaviour, membership roles and influence on individual consumption. The research was approached interpretively with a case study design investigating a tribe of vinyl record collectors in a New Zealand context. Findings – Key findings include the confirmation of Kozinets' antecedents of tribal membership and the four roles of tribal members previously conceptualised by Cova and Cova. The tribe was found to have a core set of values that moderated any individual differences. A hierarchy, managed through the distribution of “cultural capital”, was found to exist amongst the group. In an extension of Cova's modelling a fifth role of “Chief” was identified, whereby the Chief was found to act as an opinion leader and organiser amongst the group. Research limitations/implications – Owing to constraints of both time and research funding, only one tribe was examined in this case study, hence the results are very specific to the group studied. Future research should apply the managerial implications from this study to other case contexts to test and expand understanding of consumer tribe dynamics and the creation of consumer loyalty. Originality/value – This paper creates a link between extant consumer behaviour, loyalty and consumer culture theory. The presented results have implications for the marketing manager through advancement towards creation of a model of tools a firm can use to connect with and build sustainable loyalty with consumer tribes.
Cleo Mitchell, Brian C. Imrie
(2011). Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing & Logistics. 23(1): 39-56. Corresponding author : email@example.com
Achievement in College Mathematics: A Past Effect Analysis
Investing in education is imperative in this knowledge based economy to sustain a competitive edge. As we are aware, the higher education level is a significant factor for a long term economic growth. To ensure students? are well equipped with the foundation for a higher level, a proper transition from primary right up to tertiary is crucial. In retrospect, poor achievement in higher learning institution has been an invariable issue and has drawn the attention of the higher learning institution, especially in numerical subjects like the College Mathematics. Although research of the higher learning institution places emphasis on classroom intervention to enhance students’ achievement, a study in the phenomenon from the perspective of course setting of the high school level mathematics education as reason behind poor performance in college is also vital. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of students’ performance in high school Mathematics on students’ academic performance in College Mathematics. The respondents of this study were the students from a private college. This study revealed that performance in high school Mathematics has an association with student’s performance in College Mathematics, while gender and medium of study act as moderators.
Harpaljit Kaur, Shalini Nagaratnam & Tey Ban Cheng. Elixir Online Journal, July 2011. Corresponding author : Shalini.Nagaratnam@taylors.edu.my
Jus Cogens as a Vision of the International Legal Order
Based on the observation that the concept of jus cogens is of limited relevance for the actual practice of international law, this article argues that, despite its formal inclusion in the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties, jus cogens does not constitute a rule of international law. Instead, it is more appropriately viewed as a statement on, or vision of, the international legal order. As such, it has had, and continues to have, significant impact on the post-Vienna Convention development of international law.
Part One of this article establishes the inaccuracy of the general view that jus cogens constitutes a (functioning) norm of international law. It highlights a series of – admittedly unavoidable – conceptual and theoretical weaknesses of the concept of jus cogens and explains how those defects account for the limited practical relevance of jus cogens. More particularly, it shows that, in the law of treaties, jus cogens has largely remained a theoretical construct and that, in other areas (State responsibility, sovereign immunity), attempts to apply jus cogens have been incoherent and largely unsuccessful.
Part Two of this article, based on the conclusion that jus cogens is not adequately characterized as norm of international law, argues that this notion is nevertheless useful insofar as it encapsulates a particular vision of the international legal order. In fact, international law as envisioned by jus cogens constitutes a normative system based on fundamental values, a hierarchy of norms and the rejection of the consensualist approach to the sources of international law. Also, the effects and repercussions of the jus cogens vision of international law are manifold; the recognition of individual rights as fundamental values of international society and the enhanced judicial protection of those rights are two illustrative examples. Markus, P
(2011). Penn State International Law Review, 29(2): 233-274. Corresponding author : Markus.Petsche@taylors.edu.my
Budget Deficits and Inflation in Thirteen Asian Developing Countries
In this study we attempt to determine the long-run relationship between budget deficit and inflation in thirteen Asian developing countries, namely; Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Myanmar, Singapore, Thailand, India, South Korea, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Nepal and Bangladesh. Using annual data for the period 1950-1999 our Granger causality within the error-correction model (ECM) framework suggest that all variables involved (budget deficits, money supply and inflation) are integrated of order one. Our ECM model estimates indicate the existence of a long-run relationship between inflation and budget deficits. Thus, we conclude that budget deficits are inflationary in Asian developing countries.
Muzaffar, S.H., Chee, K.C., Baharom, A.H
(2011). International Journal of Business and Social Sciences, 2(9): 192-204. Corresponding author : Baharom.AbdulHamid@taylors.edu.my
The influence of MLM companies and agent attributes on the willingness to undertake multilevel marketing as a career option among youth
Purpose – The direct selling industry is experiencing phenomenal growth in Malaysia. The Domestic Trade, Cooperatives and Consumerism Ministry projects that there will be a 20 percent increase in volume of direct sales growth to RM5.5 billion in 2010, RM6.2 billion in 2011 and RM7 billion in 2012. The Direct Selling Act 1993 has been reinforced to accord protection to potential consumers. With the real wages in Malaysia decreasing and increasing unemployment especially among fresh graduates there may be a greater incentive to explore multilevel marketing (MLM) to supplement their income and maintain their desired modern lifestyle. However, the perception of MLM has in the past been tainted by unscrupulous pyramid and Ponzi schemes which aims at quick profits and are not sustainable. This paper aims to investigate the influence of perception of MLM companies and agent attributes on the willingness to undertake MLM as a career among youth.
Design/methodology/approach – The sample of this study comprised 218 students pursuing business and management degrees at a private higher education institution in Klang Valley, Malaysia. Methodologically, this study developed statistically valid and reliable scales for all the constructs of this study namely perception of attributes of MLM companies (general, schemes and service) an agents (general and trust) as well as willingness to undertake MLM as a career option.
Findings – The findings indicate that all MLM company and agent attributes have a significant influence on the willingness to undertake MLM as a career option except MLM schemes. General agent attributes displayed a significant negative influence.
Practical implications – MLM companies need to make their schemes more understandable and transparent to solidify the legitimacy and sustainability as the employer of choice. Originality/value – The paper shows that MLM remains a viable career option for youth and they need to be equipped with adequate training in personal selling, entrepreneurship and soft skills. MLM companies can tap and nurture this pool of young talent to meet their human resource needs for future growth of this industry in Malaysia
Joyce Koe Hwee Nga, Soo Wai Mun
(2011). Journal of Research in Interactive Marketing, 5(10) : 50-70. Corresponding author : WaiMun.Soo@taylors.edu.my
Quality in Higher Education: A Variety of Stakeholder Perspectives
In higher education, stakeholders’ views are crucial and should be taken into consideration by the education providers in transcending cognitive skills as well as improving quality processes. With the increasingly diverse profile of students nowadays, the authors seek to evaluate the perception of higher education stakeholders on quality in higher education. This study employed a combination of qualitative and quantitative approach. Interview participants in this study expressed divergent views but majority seemed inclined towards graduate qualities. It was emphasized that quality higher education should not only produce academically good graduates, but graduates with good character and meet industry expectations. Other perceptions specific to the stakeholders were also revealed. A survey was also conducted to investigate the perceptions of students who are the receiver of higher education provision. Structural Equation Modeling was employed and the results revealed that Effective Teaching and Learning, Personal Development, Supportive Learning Environment, Improved Communication Skills, and Information Availability, Accuracy and Accessibility were the reliable indicators of the underlying construct of perceived quality in higher education. Tang Siew Fun
& Sufean Hussin (2011). International Journal of Social Science and Humanity, 1(2):126-131. Corresponding author : SiewFun.Tang@taylors.edu.my
The Person having Ordinary Skills in the arts in assessing obviousness standard in the US and Taiwan after KSR - Implications for Taiwan Patent Law & Practice
The Person Having Ordinary Skill in the Arts (PHOSITA) is a critical standard in determining whether an invention satisfies the “obviousness” and “inventive step” requirements of the U.S. and Taiwan respectively. The concept of the PHOSITA first originated from the 1850 Supreme Court ruling in Hotchkiss v. Greenwood and later was codified into the U.S. Patent Act of 1952. Often a recipient of U.S. patent jurisprudence, Taiwan has incorporated the PHOSITA concept in its 1979 Patent Act amendment. However, in practice, the application of the PHOSITA has been largely ignored in both the U.S. and Taiwan. Not only was the PHOSITA concept largely ignored in Taiwan, in practice the satisfaction of the “inventive step” requirement could be obtained simply on a showing of “unexpected efficacy.” In this regard, Taiwan has relied on the Taiwan Intellectual Property Office (TIPO) Invention Patent Examination Guideline (2009) to support the abdication of the “inventive step” requirement.
Wang Wei Lin and Jerry Hsiao I- H
(2011). Rutgers Law Record, 38(18):18-33. Corresponding author : IHsuan.Hsiao@taylors.edu.my
Multi-criteria Decision Making Approach for Responsible Tourism Management
National Parks and marine protected areas in Malaysia have become increasingly exposed to ecotourism development activities. Greater accessibility and increase in leisure have contributed to an increase in ecotourism destinations visit. Exploitation by ecotourism and development activities has caused negative impacts to the natural resource of these destinations. Management of the protected areas becomes essential to the continuum of the biodiversity of that area which makes it attractive for tourists to visit. Management of the protected area is complex as the involvement of multiple stakeholders needs to be considered such as government agencies, non-government organisations, tourist operators, local community and interested parties. Hence, a review of the suitability of multi-criteria decision-making addressing the opinions of multiple stakeholders is investigated for the management of Tun Sakaran Marine Park (TSMP) in this paper. The first section introduces the current development of marine protected areas in Malaysia. The second section explores the use of multi-criteria decision-making approach in the management of marine protected areas. The use of this approach is significant as there is a growing number of literature that justifies the inclusion of multiple stakeholders’ opinion in the decision making process. In the third section, Tun Sakaran Marine Park management policies are explored and the suitability of using a multi-criteria approach in its management is explored. It is proposed, that the multi-criteria approach using Analytical Hierarchical Process (AHP) appears to be the right approach as it uses a hierarchical structure to breakdown the problems into smaller manageable units. Vikneswaran Nair,
Madavan Balan Nair, Sridar Ramachandran, Ahmad Shuib & Syamsul Herman, M.A. (2012). The Malaysian Forester, 75 (2): 135-146. Corresponding author : firstname.lastname@example.org
Analysis of International Tourists’ Perceptions of Indonesia and Effectiveness of the ‘Visit Indonesia 2008’ Marketing Campaign
This paper investigates tourist perceptions of Indonesia as a tourist destination and examines the impact of the ‘Visit Indonesia 2008’ marketing campaign on their purchase intentions. A quantitative survey was developed and 400 questionnaires were distributed to foreign passengers who were departing Indonesia from the three major international airports : Soekarno-Hatta International Airport, Jakarta, Juanda International Airport, Surabaya and Ngurah Rai International Airport, Bali. Based on the findings of this study, the level of awareness of the current tourism campaign was low, with only 13.7% of the respondents claiming to have seen the campaign and of these very few claimed it had a significant impact on their decision to actually visit Indonesia. Fanggy Theresia Sumaco
& Scott Richardson (2012). Asia-Pacific Journal of Innovation in Hospitality and Tourism, 1(1): 103-118. Corresponding author : email@example.com
Application of Project-Based Learning in Students’ Engagement in Malaysian Studies and English Language
Earlier researchers have shown that project-based learning generally has a positive impact on the learning experience. However, there are no in-depth studies to explore the impact of project-based learning on student engagement in Malaysian studies and English language. This is an explanatory study that looks at the application of project-based learning on student engagement in learning these particular subjects at Taylor’s College , School of Hospitality and Tourism. The study is based on the implementation of a project assigned to students as part of their assessment in the mentioned subjects. Students were assigned the project in the beginning of the term as part of their continuous assessment. They were required to discuss, plan and look for the information and later organise the information collected to be submitted as a video or folio project. The main objectives of this study are to determine the effect of project-based learning on the students’ engagement in the two subjects and to improve the teaching and learning experience. The two pertinent research questions for this study are: (1) How does project-based learning affect the engagement of students in their learning process? (2) How can a teacher use projects to maximise a student’s engagement in learning? Data was collected from focus groups, interviews and classroom observations. The findings demonstrate that project-based learning can improve student engagement in subjects such as Malaysian Studies and English language but collaborative learning which is one of the aspects of student engagement is the most challenging part for instructors and students. Based on the findings from this study, suggestions for improvement in the application of project-based learning are also presented. Aiedah Abdul Khalek & Audrey Lee Kim Choo
(2012). Journal of Interdisciplinary Research in Education (JIRE), 2(1): 37-46. Corresponding author: Aiedah.AbdulKhalek@taylors.edu.my
Attitudes of Malaysian Tourism & Hospitality Student's towards a career in the industry
This study explored Malaysian undergraduate tourism and hospitality students' views of the industry as a career choice. Four hundred and twenty-nine tourism and hospitality students, from three Malaysian institutions completed a questionnaire rating the importance of 20 factors in influencing their choice of career, and then the extent to which they believed tourism and hospitality as a career offers these factors. All of the 20 factors tested have been identified as being significantly different. From the results, it is clear that students generally do not believe that a career in tourism and hospitality will offer them the factors that they find important. Scott Richardson
& Butler Gareth (2011). Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 17(3): 262-276. Corresponding author: firstname.lastname@example.org
Factors Determining Choice of Full Service Airlines and Low Cost Carriers: The Case of Malaysia
Air transport is a vital component of the overall travel and tourism industry, and air services have played a major role in the growth of tourism in many parts of the world. Particularly, increasing competition and technology advances have created a challenging environment for airline companies. Thus knowing passenger preferences has become more important than ever. Keeping this in mind, this study attempts to determine the factors that influence the choice of either full service airlines or low cost carriers by passengers in Malaysia. Results from a study indicate that ‘safety’ is the most important factor in choosing full service airlines. This paper presents a detailed discussion on the results obtained and the implications for the passenger airlines industry in Malaysia. Tuck Sai Boey
, Erdogan H. Ekiz & Yusniza Kamarulzaman (2012). Asia-Pacific Journal of Innovation in Hospitality and Tourism, 1(2): 179-194. Corresponding author: email@example.com
How to manage guest complaints: Global implications from Hong Kong hoteliers
In today’s competitive business environment most, if not all, of the service companies aim at satisfying their customers to the fullest extent. However, mistakes and/or failures are prevalent incidences in service businesses particularly in hospitality industry. What distinguishes the few successful companies from the rest is their dedication to hear their customers’ complaints. Seeing complaining customers as ‘problem creators’, not paying attention to their problems and failing during recovery attempt cause considerably significant losses in today’s business environment. In this sense, receiving complaints and recovering these failures are vitally important for service companies in general and for hotels in particular. Given that customers’ evaluations of organizations’ responses to their complaints in service encounters are important elements of their satisfaction judgments and loyalty intentions, it is imperative for hotel managers to have well-established service recovery systems. Thus, this study attempts first to find out the current complaint handling practices in Hong Kong hotel industry, a well-performing destination in complaint handling, and second to highlight factors influence organizational responses to guest complaints. Results indicate important issues which should be benchmarked by hoteliers around the world. Erdogan H. Ekiz, Neethiahnathan A. Ragavan, & Kashif Hussain
(2011).Global Journal of Management and Business Research, 11(2): 1-14. Corresponding author: firstname.lastname@example.org
Comparing Chinese and American Attitude towards Complaining
Erdogan H. Ekiz
||The current research aims to explore the possible effects of attitude towards complaining(ATC) on intention to remain loyal to hotels and to compare Chinese and American ATC in this perspective.
||The current research aims to explore the possible effects of attitude towards complaining(ATC) on intention to remain loyal to hotels and to compare Chinese and American ATC in this perspective.
||Findings indicate that culture clearly affects ATC and general intention to stay loyal which suggests that practitioners should consider the cultural background of their customers while designing and implementing their service recovery systems. Results show that Chinese respondents tend to forgive and forget failures, whereas Americans seek a remedy from third parties.
||Only relationships between ATC and loyalty were investigated in this research; thus inclusion of other dimensions would provide further insights. Although the use of student sample and scenario is well-justiﬁed and a common practice, future studies may consider collecting data from actual tourists. Data analyzed in this research were cross-sectional and collected using convenience sampling; future studies may use random sampling and consider conducting longitudinal research.
||There is a paucity of cross-cultural research investigating ATC. China and America’s current and potential signiﬁcance in global tourism is undeniable. Moreover, they are ideal examples of their respective culture clusters; thus studying Chinese and American ATC provides signiﬁcant insights for both industry practitioners and academics.
and Norman Au. (2011). International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 23(3):327-343. Corresponding author: email@example.com
Zone of tolerance for higher education services: A diagnostic model of service quality towards student services
The present study describes the zone of tolerance for students’ service expectations and determines the student satisfaction level for higher education institutes. It attempts to diagnose the service quality level of administrative unit, such as services provided by the registrar, library, faculty/school offices, rector’s office, dormitories, sports and health centre in a university setting. A conceptual model HEDZOT is presented in this study, and the results demonstrate that evaluation of services can be scaled according to different types of expectations – ‘desired’ and ‘adequate’- and that students use these two types of expectations as a comparison standard in evaluating higher education services. The findings reveal that students have a narrow zone of tolerance with regards to the services provided by higher education.
Halil Nadiri, Kassif Hussain
& Jay Kandampully (2011). Education and Science/Eğitim ve Bilim, 36(159):112-126. Corresponding author: Kashif.Hussain@taylors.edu.my
The Antecedents of relationship quality in Malaysia and New Zealand
||The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between the relational dynamics, namely trust, personalisation, communication, conflict handling and empathy, and relationship quality in the banking industry of two culturally dissimilar nations – Malaysia and New Zealand.
||Bank customers in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia and Dunedin, New Zealand were surveyed using a questionnaire. Bank intercept technique was used in administering the instrument. A total of 358 customers (comprising 150 from Malaysia and 208 from New Zealand) provided the data for the study. Multiple regression analysis was used to estimate the hypothesized relationships.
||The results of the study show that the five relational dynamics explain 84 percent and 76 percent of variations in relationship quality in Malaysia and New Zealand respectively. Communication, trust, and empathy are significantly related with relationship quality in both countries, whereas personalisation has a significant impact on relationship quality in New Zealand but not in Malaysia. The results also reveal that conflict handling is significantly and marginally associated with relationship quality in New Zealand and Malaysia respectively.
||Although the study was conducted on the banking industry, the outcome may be relevant to other service sectors. Further, understanding relational dynamics in different cultures is important, as the study has shown; thus integrating culture in the relationship marketing/management models would advance the understanding of culture roles in consumers' perceptions of and influences on relationship quality.
||The paper assesses and compares the impact of relational dynamics on relationship quality among bank customers from two different cultures. By comparing opposite cultures this study is an advance over past single country studies, and enhances the prospect of generalizing the findings.
Nelson Oly Ndubisi, Catheryn Khoo-Lattimore
, Lin Yang, Celine Marie Capel (2011). International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, 28(2): 233-248. Corresponding author: CatherynKhoo.Lattimore@taylors.edu.my